BLACK HOLES AND PLANET FORMATION
Black holes have been widely popularized by the media1. They are often thought of as regions to be avoided by space travelers as things can fall into them and never escape. To exit a black hole, a physical object would have to travel faster than light. The Theory of Relativity then indicates that its apparent time would move backwards.
Black holes are formed by dense concentrations of matter. Any massive body bends space around it and this distortion produces the "force" of gravity. For black holes, the space around it is so distorted that not even light can get out. The boundaries of these black holes are called Schwarzschild singularities.
ASTRO-METRICS postulates that a connectivity between astral and physical space occurs at black hole boundaries (Schwarzschild singularities) within the space-time continuum. Here, a singularity occurs because space and time cease to exist as meaningful concepts. These physical singularities may also correspond to strange or unusual singularities in astral space as well.
Black holes are thought to result from the gravitational collapse of stars after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel. Stars, a few times the Sun's mass, are predicted to eventually collapse and form black holes. It is reasonable to find a black hole orbiting a star since most stars are in binary systems.
Our galaxy has existed for quite a few billion years, and black holes are likely found throughout it. Since a substantial mass loss accompanies the collapse of a star into a black hole, the orbital geometry of its planets is thereby altered. Often, the planets no longer even remain bound to the star that once they orbited.
Hawking and others believe that there is a very large black hole at the center of our galaxy. Its mass is thought to be about three million times greater than our Sun. Even this may not be the largest black hole found in the universe. Sources of radio signals outside our galaxy, called quasars, may actually be black holes with masses a hundred million times that of our Sun. But, these are also hundreds of millions of light years away.
Black holes were once thought to be only perfectly spherical. However, Kerr showed that those rotating black holes would bulge just as the Earth does about its equator. The size and shape of a black hole is dependent only on its mass, electronic charge and angular momentum.The black holes formed from collapsing stars may have considerable angular momentum, and thus be somewhat disc shaped. Almost nothing is known about the giant black hole suspected to be at the center of our galaxy. Its probable large mass and angular momentum suggests an even more flattened disc shaped black hole.
X-rays are required to detect a potential black hole candidate. They are often blocked by matter disbursed in the immediate neighborhood. The X-rays are a result of the stresses on matter falling into the black hole, and not an emission of the black hole itself. Only a few observations of intermittent X-ray bursts have been found which indicate the presence of a black hole. Hawking is 95% certain one is orbiting a star in Cygnus X-1. Note there is a radial symmetry of the black hole's disc and the axial symmetry of its ejection cone. These symmetries are important in forming planets and will be discussed further in Chapters 4 and 8. The mass and angular momentum of black holes make them disc, Not spherical shaped.
The black holes of most interest in this work are not these distant monsters, but rather primordial black holes which originated at the time of the Big Bang. These black holes, produced by the compressional forces of that momentous explosion, would not be massive at all. In fact, they could be as small as a thousand million tons (1015 grams). While they would have the same mass as a large mountain, it would be compressed into the size of an atomic nucleus. If one were to strike the Earth's surface, it would fall through the Earth towards its center (and probable exit the other side) as easily as a rock falls through air.
Ironically, Hawking has found that these small black holes are not black at all . The laws of thermodynamics (as derived through quantum mechanics) dictate that they radiate. The smaller they are, the more they glow. Those with masses on the order of a thousand million tons will radiate power of about ten thousand megawatts for the expected life of the universe. Their mass is diminished by this radiation. Smaller ones are believed to have already exhausted their mass through radiation and already exploded or detonated. The nominal lifetime of these small primordial black holes is only a function of their mass and this function is as follows.2
T(years) = (2.72 X 10-24 years/kilogram3) X Mass3
This work postulates that the major astronomical bodies are seeded by a small primordial black hole, henceforth designated as a PBH. Equations (usually appearing in the footnotes) and the more technical illustrations will use the following acronyms. The lay reader need not familiarize themselves with these terms unless interested in these technical features.
Small primordial black holes may also be disc shaped, but less so than the very large ones. The smaller the astronomical body, the smaller the primordial black hole seeding it, and the more spherical the corresponding PBH is suspected to be.
The PBHs, depending on their size, provide heat engines spewing energy into the center of the planets. The Earth's molten core is postulated to be caused by this phenomenon. However, the radiation (converted to thermal energy) from a PBH (rather than from naturally radioactive material) can be the principal energy source. This can also account for Jupiter's great red spot. Note: the author now believes that Jupiter's great red spot is due to an asteroid or comet strike.
Both planets and stars could form around these PBHs. However, the interior of our Sun is likely much hotter than the energy released by the PBH. Thus the PBH will absorb energy from the ongoing stellar reaction and slowly grow in size. Some matter, in the form of neutrons or protons could enter the PHB, but electrons would be too large to enter. As long as the Sun is not dense enough to prevent atomic electrostatic forces repelling matter from these PBHs, little happens to the solar operation. Large stars, on the other hand, can achieve core densities great enough to collapse the electrostatic forces of repulsion, which can lead to the formation of a black hole of stellar mass.
This work also presumes that "astral radiation" emanates from these Schwarzschild singularities (or black holes) and influences human behavior. How this happens is beyond the scope of this work. Testable, verifiable physical discoveries resulting from this, and related hypotheses, are its intent. Since Schwarzschild singularities (black holes) are associated with astronomy, verification through astronomical observations are sought. Effectively, astrology is applied, in reverse, to find astronomical objects.
1. Most material taken from: Steven Hawking; A BRIEF HISTORY OF TIME; pp. 88, 91, 95, 97, 108 and Chapters 7 and 14.
2. Mossayeb Jamshid; BLACK HOLES; The Astronomy Quarterly, Volume 7, Number 1; 1990; pg. 45.