Part of Chapter 10

1. PLANETS OF OTHER STARS Updated 07/10/2020

This chapter considers the results of applying the ASTRO-METRIC concept of planet formation to the principal star of three different star systems. These are:

Within this chapter, ASTRO-METRICS provides the structures of these nearby solar systems. These structures are presented in Table 10-1. The descriptions are the results of simple mathematical algorithms that can easily be understood by most scientists. The formulations and computations supporting these results can be found in Appendix F.

TABLE 10-1
(AU-Earth Mass)
(AU-Earth Mass
(AU-Earth Mass)
a 12620 - 1372** 9270 - 1140** 1595 - 412**
(Proxima Centauri)
5% - 11% S. Mass
(26 Draconis C)
4% - 9% S. Mass
1.5% - 3.2% S. Mass
b 3155 - 616**
2.2% - 4.9% S. Mass
3116 - 660**
2.3% - 5.2% S. Mass
399 - 248
c 2103 - 408**
1.5% - 3.3% S. Mass
2318 - 560**
2% - 3.5% S. Mass
9.6 - 15
d 788 - 312 779 - 332 8.2 - 10.4
e 525 - 232 579 - 280 2.4 - 15206
f 197 - 164 195 - 164 2.1 - 137
g 131? - ? 145 - 140 0.6 - 0.126 Iarga (mass too small)
h 1.17 - 2220 1.22 - 206 0.53 - Asteroids (zodiacal dust).
i 0.78 - 206 0.91 - 2034 0.15 - 0.62
j 0.29 - 0.23 0.30 - Asteroids
k 0.20 - Asteroids 0.23 - 0.22

* These are the planets cast from the principal (larger) A star of these three star systems. Larger planets are generally formed when stars, larger than Vulcan, supply the casting forces. All masses are in Earth Masses unless otherwise designated. Parameters for the planets of the B stars are generally more difficult to estimate.

** These values are the heavy element planet core. Planets more than 1000 AU distant from their parent G, F or K type star to be able to hold hydrogen gas acquired from the gaseous nebulae. Otherwise, radiation from the parent stars will disburse the hydrogen (although many hydrides will form in the planets' atmosphere and on the surface) and it will become a typical Jovian planet. These conditions have not been modeled.

# The masses of the planets shown in this Table 10-1 are the same values as is shown in ASTRO-METRICS Table 10-1 except that they have been multiplied by 4 (or 5.65 if transition planets are involved). This change is based on the new parameters now believed to define Vulcan - the Sun's binary Companion. See the Summary section's reference. 1.

Many other multiple star systems could have been chosen, but there is reason to believe that these three star systems host (or recently have hosted) intelligent life. In the case of two of these star systems, the intelligent life hosted bears a special relationship to mankind. Supporting data will be presented in the later chapters. Each of the following chapters will be more and more difficult for the purely physical scientist to accept. To understand the nature of intelligent life on our own planet, or in our galaxy, the mind must be opened to new possibilities and sciences. Therefore, these concepts will be delayed until ASTRO-METRICS Chapters 12 and 13.

Large planetary PBHs, from the PBHs of large star systems like Alpha Centauri A and B, are cast at substantial distances from the parent star. This occurs because these massive Sun-sized binary star systems (Vulcan, by comparison, is tiny) are often separated by only a few tens of AU. Table 10-1 lists the orbits and masses of planets that are predicted to have formed about the principal star of the three star systems under consideration. The outermost "planets" of the Alpha Centauri and 26 Draconis trinary star systems have evolved into the small M class stars, Proxima Centauri and 26 Draconis C respectively. The orbital radius of these two-M class stars is measured by conventional astronomical techniques to be 13,000 AU and 10,000 AU respectively. These radii are in agreement with the ASTRO-METRIC values that are computed to be 12,620 and 9,270 AU respectively.

Masses of the planets orbiting these stars depend on both the spin of the parent star, abundance of hydrogen in the condensing nebulae, and distance the planet is from the parent star. At distances of more than a 1,000 AU, the parent G, F or K type star is assumed to have little effect. Still, the 50 times the heavy element core (as is found in the case of the Sun) may be diminished. Stellar spin rate data is difficult to obtain since it must be measured by minute variation of the star's light. Sun spots or flares can cause variation, and the observed variation can be attributed to a large number of such variables. Rapid spin is easiest to detect as it causes spectral line broadening. Similarly, the ratio of hydrogen/helium to the remaining heavier elements must be obtained by spectral line intensity differentials. Massive differentials can be detected, smaller ones are harder to measure.

There is no astronomical technique to directly measure the mass of these small M class stars because their separation from the large binary pair is so far and the resulting orbital motion so slow. Even orbital rotation of 26 Draconis C is in question. Orbital rotation would take millions of years, and the time to observe a complete rotation may not occur during the course of human evolution. Burnham2 indicates that the mass of Proxima Centauri is between 5% and 15% solar mass. He does this by comparing it to other known binary flare stars, such as UV Ceti, Ross 614, (and Wolf 424)3. These stars fall more in the 5% to 11% sun's mass range. This means that Proxima picked up between 12 and 26 times its core weight in hydrogen. Assuming this is true for Alpha Centauri A's and 26 Draconis A' a, b and c planets and 61 Cygni A's, a planet, their masses can be estimated. These are found below the core masses for these planets in Table 10-1. Actually, these values will be reduced for the other planets because they are closer to their parent star. As can be seen, Proxima and 26 Draconis C are the only bodies which are large enough to ignite. Astronomers don't consider ignition possible unless the stars are larger than 8% Solar Mass, based on the Zapodsky/Salpeter cold sphere model4. However, the ASTRO-METRICS model suggests the primordial black hole seed of the star may actually ignite it. Moreover, both of Wolf 424's binary stars have ignited, and they are only 5% and 6% Solar Mass respectively (the smallest known ignited stars).3

The mass of the outermost planet of the 61 Cygni system is too low to permit ignition of its accumulated hydrogen. As before, these mass calculations assume a similar spin rate as the Sun.5 Its mass, assuming that it retained 50 times its heavy element mass of hydrogen and helium, is about 1.5% that of the Sun. Its rotational perturbation on the 61 Cygni binary system is to slow to detect.

Both U.S. and Soviet astronomers found the 61 Cygni A Star to "wobble" with a nominal 4.9 year period. Such a period corresponds to a 2.4 AU separation between the 61 Cygni A star and a large unseen companion - the e planet. Bearing the new Vulcan orbit and mass in mind, the ASTRO-METRIC model now predicts (the transition) planet e to be about 4.8 times as massive as Jupiter. Strand's earlier work indicates that it is about 8 times as massive as Jupiter but the Soviets estimated 4 Jovian masses in the mid seventies. The ASTRO-METRIC mass estimates for planet e is now consistent with measured data.6, 7

The Soviets also found a similar planet orbiting the 61 Cygni B star at a nominal 2.8 AU. The ASTRO-METRICS model anticipates such a transition planet, but at 2.1 to 2.4 AU. Normally, scaling is done to the A star of our own solar system, i. e. the Sun. Scaling to Vulcan's planets is not nearly as reliable.

Modern spectroscopic techniques have yet to reveal the presence of these large planets in the 61 Cygni system. Normally, a several-Jovian mass planet at 2.4 AU should be easily detectable. But their orbital inclinations could be such that spectroscopic techniques may not work. Then, only the astrometric (wobble) technique could verifies their existence. Radiation from the two near-by stars in this binary system could also interfere, making the spectroscopic detection technique difficult to implement.

Two large planets (e & f), followed by one or two very small planets (g & h) form in the transition zone (one fifth the distance separating the co- orbiting stars). The transient effect is caused when the nature of the physics of the casting forces involved changes. The transition effect is due to the shift from forces governed by quantum mechanics to ones governed by classical mechanics. In our solar system, the large planets formed by this shift are Saturn and Jupiter. The small planets are the Asteroids and Mars. Normally, the PBH seeding the outer planets (Uranus and Neptune) would be scattered because the PBHs of the two stars casting planets would form a region of orbital instability. But the Vulcan's small mass was insufficient to cause this instability even though Vulcan comes within 134 AU of the Sun.

Planets like Jupiter and Saturn often form just inside the region of orbital instability for most close binary star systems (those separated by a few tens of AU). These planets large size will foster the collection and retention of hydrides, especially water, when hydrogen gas is acquired from the gaseous nebulae. Frequently, one large planet, often completely covered by seas, is formed in this region.

At least one of the small planets, which form next, will usually be shattered by the detonation of its PBH, forming an asteroid belt. Consequently, the parent star, as viewed from one of the large planets (or its satellites) will have a reddish haze about it. This haze is caused by Raleigh scattering of the star's light by the large amounts of zodiacal dust found in this asteroid belt. See ASTRO-METRICS' frontis piece. This image offers a degree of "verification" of this anticipated asteroid belt close to the 61 Cygni star as possibly deduced from a well documented alien contact.

A modest terrestrial planet will often be found a few tenths of an AU from the star. Sometimes, a second and even a third larger (by an order of magnitude) planet will be present. These planets are analogous to Mars, the Earth and Venus respectively. The planet analogous to Earth will usually be found in a mid orbit casting position. The latter two of these planets are not expected to be found in the star systems under investigation as they were formed too close to the parent star and were either absorbed by it or shattered as the star grew to its current size. Giant planets in near stellar orbit and close (spectroscopic) binary stars are acknowledged to exist.

Planets h and i (of the Alpha Centauri and 26 Draconis A stars) are quite massive, and are probably cloud covered. A significant greenhouse effect, caused by these planet's thick atmospheres, will warm these planet's surfaces, rendering life unlikely. Only Planet i of the 26 Draconis A star (or its satellites) has a possibility of supporting life, depending on its atmosphere. Two planets, and their satellites, are likely in the "liquid water zone" of this solar system


The orbits and masses of natural planetary satellites can also be computed by a method similar to the one that was performed for the planets. See Appendix F and Table 10-2. Some of these planets (and their satellites), that are the analog of our Jupiter and Saturn systems, are formed in the liquid water zone around the principal stars.

TABLE 10-2
Satellite System/Planet Orbit* (AU) - Mass (Earth)#
Sun/Saturn 9.52 - 95
S-1 0.0071 - 0.0226
S-2 - rings
S-3 0.0031 - 0.0004
S-4 0.0022 - 0.0002
Alpha Centauri A/Planet h 1.17 - 2270
h-1 0.16 - 0.62
h-2 0.11 - 0.90
h-3 0.08 - 0.28
h-4 0.056 - 0.51
Alpha Centauri A/Planet i 0.78 - 206
i-1 0.060 - 0.48
i-2 0.043 - rings
i-3 0.030 - 0.0085
i-4 0.021 - 0.0040
26 Draconis A/Planet h 1.22 - 206
h-1 0.057 - 0.48
h-2 0.040 - rings
h-3 0.028 - 0.0085
h-4 0.020 - 0.0040
26 Draconis A/Planet i 0.91 - 2034
i-1 0.14 - 0.62
i-2 0.10 - 0.85
i-3 0.07 - 0.28
i-4 0.05 - 0.51
* No Reliable Estimate

# The masses of the non solar satellites and planets shown in this Table 10- 2 are the same values as is shown in ASTRO-METRICS Table 10-2 except that they have been multiplied by 5.65 (since transition planets are involved). This change is based on the new parameters now believed to define Vulcan - the Sun's binary Companion. See the Summary section's reference. 1.

Life, if it were present, would most likely exist on the larger satellites of the two Jupiter size planets orbiting the principal star of these two star systems. These planetary satellites appear slightly larger than Mars and slightly smaller than Earth. They are in orbit slightly less than 0.2 AU from their parent planet.

Planetary satellites h-3 and h-4 orbiting planet h of the Alpha Centauri A star offer a particularly attractive body to host biological life similar to that found on Earth. Planetary satellites i-3 and i-4 orbiting planet i of the 26 Draconis A star also likewise may be able to support life. These four planetary satellites are very similar to the same four satellites of planet h orbiting the Alpha Centauri A-star. The most distant satellite periods will be on the order of a year and a half, producing additional seasonal modulations. A surface gravity about that of Earth is now anticipated. Note: The surface gravity of some of these satellites may be more like that of Venus. Rapidly varying Earth like temperatures could occur.

Planet h, orbiting the 26 Draconis A star, offers a good chance of possessing large seas that may host aquatic life. The chances would increase if the atmosphere were relatively thin or transparent to infrared radiation, thereby limiting the effects of greenhouse heating.

Satellite System/Planet Orbit* (AU) - Mass (Earth)#
Sun/Jupiter 5.2 - 381
J-1 0.0098 - 0.0216
J-2 0.0062 - 0.0297
J-3 0.0039 - 0.0096
J-4 0.0025 - 0.0178
61 Cygni A/Planet e 2.4 - 1520
e-1 0.050 - 0.26
e-2 0.036 - 0.36
e-3 0.025 - 0.12
e-4 0.018 - 0.21
61 Cygni A/Planet f 2.1 - 137
f-1 0.019 - 0.20
f-2 0.014 - rings
f-3 0.010 - 0.004
f-4 0.007 - rings?
* No Reliable Estimate

# The masses of the non solar satellites and planets shown in this Table 10- 2 are the same values as is shown in ASTRO-METRICS Table 10-2 except that they have been multiplied by 5.65 (since transition planets are involved). This change is based on the new parameters now believed to define Vulcan - the Sun's binary Companion. See the Summary section's reference. 1.

Planet f in the 61 Cygni star system offers the most promising location for a planet inhabited by a sentient species. Its anticipated mass (M) is now about 138 Earth masses. It fits the "three times our surface gravity (SG)" description of their home planet. In the following equation, D is the mean density of the planet in question.

Dplanet/Dearth = (SGplanet/SGearth)3/2 (Mplanet/Mearth)-1/2

It is made of less dense material (possibly Manganese Silicates) and its average density may be only 0.44 of that Earth's. The ASTRO-METRICS' frontis piece offers an image of this planet, its two rings and moon. This image is consistent with the reported description "rings and a cratered moon" that was derived from a well-documented alien contact. It is also consistent with the satellites and rings predicted for planet f.

Following are general observations about two star (binary) systems and their associated solar systems:

Multiple star systems containing rapidly rotating stars may have large planets because the star's PBHs are thin, and a relatively larger planetary PBH can be dislodged. Planets orbiting stars cooler than F or G class (and even K and small M class stars) may also support life. Depending on size and separation of the M class stars, planets analogous to (but not the size of) Jupiter & Saturn may exist.

Oceans, shielding organic molecules from violent stellar flares, will permit life forms to develop even in these small M class binary systems. Life forms shielded by oceans or adapted at tunneling (like ants) may also flourish there. The flares may even assist the formation of the primordial organic soup, thereby encouraging the formation of life. Such life forms may exist on one of the planets of the Wolf 424 binary star system. These cooler M and K class red dwarf stars represent the bulk of the galaxy's stellar systems. Life forms will logically first form in the seas, and may remain there due to either shielding required by the onslaught of stellar flares or the large surface gravity that would have to be overcome should it migrate on to an available land mass. Land based life forms will be found much less frequently than aquatic ones. Squid and octopus type life forms are capable of achieving substantial intelligence. Long range communication through water at audio rates will commonly occur. Emphasis on optical video communications may occur less often throughout the galaxy since this capability is more inclined to develop in the less common land based intelligence.

The majority of stellar systems in our galaxy are believed to be binaries and therefore contain planets. Planets are usually excluded in regions from one fifth to five times the separation of the closest star pairs due to orbital instability. If this separation is such that a planetary orbit can exist in the liquid water zone, there is a reasonable chance that one can be found there. Some form of life may exist (or have existed) on at least one of these planets. It may prove to be the rule, not the exception, that life now exists, or once existed, on at least one planet in almost all the galaxy's multiple stellar systems that permit orbital stability in the liquid water zone.



2. Robert Burnham, BURNHAM'S CELESTIAL HANDBOOK - Vol. I; General Publishing Company, Ltd., 30 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Toronto, Canada; 1978: pps.550 -551

3. Michel Petit: VARIABLE STARS; John Wiley & Sons, Chichester; 1987; pg. 158. And
W. D. Heintz; ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Vol. 217; 1989; pg. 145.

4. H. S. Zapodsky and E. E. Salpeter; THE MASS-RADIUS RELATION FOR COLD SPHERE OF LOW MASS; The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 158; Nov. 1969.

5. ANA M. Larson, Alan W. Irwin, Stephenson L. Yang, Cherie Goodenough, Gordon A. H. Walker, R. Andrew, and David A. Bohlender; A Ca II LAMBDA 8662 INDEX OF CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY - THE CASE OF 61 CYGNI A; Publications of the Astronomical Journal Of The Pacific, Vol. 105, No. 686; pp. 332 - 336, 1993 April.

6. K. A. Strand; TITLE?; Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc.; Vol. 86; 1943; pg. 364; and; K. A. Strand; Sky AND TELESCOPE; Dearborn Observatory; December 1956; and; K. A. Strand; THE ORBITAL MOTION OF 61 CYGNI; The Astronomical Journal; Vol. 62, February 1957; pp. 75, 248 -258.

7. A. N. Deich and O. N. Orlova; INVISIBLE COMPANIONS OF THE BINARY STAR 61 CYGNI; Astronomicheskii Zhurnal, Vol. 54, Mar. - Apr. 1977; pp. 327 - 339 and; A. N. Deich; NEW DATA ON UNSEEN COMPANIONS OF 61 CYGNI; Pistma Astron. Zhurnal, Vol. 4, Feb. 1978; pp. 95 - 98.

Alpha Centauri is a triple-star system, composed of a binary star, two stars much like the Sun - one slightly larger and hotter, called Alpha Centauri A, and the other slightly smaller and cooler, called Alpha Centauri B - orbited themselves by a red dwarf (called Proxima Centauri) much farther out. The planet orbits close in to Alpha Cen B, and is technically called Alpha Centauri Bb - planets have lower case letters assigned to them, starting at b. Its mass is only 1.13 times the Earth's mass, making this one of the lower mass planets yet found! But don't get your hopes up of visiting it - its period is only 3.24 days, meaning it must be only about 6 million kilometers (less than 4 million miles) from its star. Even though Alpha Cen B is a bit cooler than the Sun, this still means the planet is baking hot, far too hot to sustain any kind of life as we know it, or even liquid water. Still. Holy crap! A planet for Alpha Cen. Wow.

6. 61 Cygni - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Claims of a planetary system
On several occasions, it has been claimed that 61 Cygni might have unseen low- mass companions, planets or a brown dwarf. Kaj Strand of the Sproul Observatory, under the direction of Peter van de Kamp, made the first such claim in 1942 using observations to detect tiny but systematic variations in the orbital motions of 61 Cygni A and B. These perturbations suggested that a third body of about 16 Jupiter masses must be orbiting 61 Cygni A. Reports of this third body served as inspiration for Hal Clement's 1953 science fiction novel Mission of Gravity. In 1957, van de Kamp narrowed his uncertainties, claiming that the object had a mass of eight times that of Jupiter, a calculated orbital period of 4.8 years, and a semi-major axis of 2.4 AU. In 1977, Soviet astronomers at the Pulkovo Observatory near Saint Petersburg suggested that the system included three planets: two giant planets with six and twelve Jupiter masses around 61 Cyg A, and one giant planet with seven Jupiter masses around 61 Cygni B.
In 1978, Wulff-Dieter Heintz of the Sproul Observatory proved that these claims, as well as the claims for unseen companions around many other stars, were spurious, having failed to detect any evidence of such motion down to six percent of the Sun's mass-equivalent to about 60 times the mass of Jupiter.
The habitable zone for 61 Cygni A, defined as the locations where liquid water could be present on an Earth-like planet, is 0.26 0.58 AU, where 1 AU is the average distance from the Earth to the Sun. For 61 Cygni B, the habitable zone is 0.240.50.
Refining planetary boundaries
Since no certain planetary object has been detected around either star so far, McDonald Observatory team has set limits to the presence of one or more planets around 61 Cygni A and 61 Cygni B with masses between 0.07 and 2.1 Jupiter masses and average separations spanning between 0.05 and 5.2 AU.